One of the most successful of early pioneer designs was the Curtiss Pusher series of biplanes. The airplane featured a strange control system that hooked its ailerons to a leaning rack that translated left and right shoulder movements into banking control inputs. It also featured a tricycle landing gear, and some versions had a rudimentary canard-type control surface which is now considered a modern feature in airplane design. Development of the design was continuous, resulting in many different engine, seating, landing gear, and control surface combinations. The Pushers were used for racing, distance records, and hydroplane development. The first hydroplane was a version of the Curtiss Pusher, as was the U.S. Navy’s first airplane. The first amphibian, and the first airplane to land on a ship deck, were both versions of this very well known and now often replicated design.